Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Teslas Elon Musk - Free Essay Example

The automotive industry – one of the most complex and alluring in the world valued at over 1.5 trillion dollars as of 2015 – was transformed through the introduction of one firm – Tesla. Although Tesla is only fifteen years old, it has significantly influenced what kinds of cars high-end luxury competitors manufacture such as the appearance and technology features. With its dashing and ambitious CEO Elon Musk at the helm, the firm has become an icon in the industry – an icon that anticipates and sets trends. Tesla was founded in 2003 by an array of engineers who believed that people did not have to compromise luxury and affordability to drive an all-electric vehicle. With such a precise mission in mind, Tesla has convinced itself and its consumers that electric vehicles can be better, quicker, and more fun to drive than fuel powered vehicles. As a result, Tesla believes the faster the world stops relying on fossil fuels and moves toward a zero-emission future, the better. Consequently, in 2008, the firm finally unveiled its very first vehicle – the Roadster – an all-electric super car that produces 288 horsepower and can travel 244 miles on a single charge of its lithium-ion battery pack. Following the release of the roadster was its revolutionary Model S – the worlds first ever premium all-electric sedan from the ground up. The Model S combines the highest quality of safety, superb efficiency, and extreme performance. With such a vehicle that reset the worlds expect ation for the car of the 21st century with the longest range of any electric vehicle at the firms helm, Teslas success germinated. It is known that a companys market entry strategy sets the course for its later development. Tesla entered the market with a luxurious, expensive product focused on a financially privileged class rather than attempting to build an affordable car that in turn could be mass produced and marketed to compete on such a massive market. Teslas vehicles are all produced at its factory in Fremont, California, where most of the vehicles parts are also manufactured. As a result, mass production is most definitely not feasible even if the firm wanted to. Tesla knew that a startup without experience in manufacturing cars and no economies of scale could not produce an affordable product at a competitive price level like other competitors. Consequently, Tesla developed a ground-breaking sports car – the Roadster – to really distinguish itself. With the Roadster as a luxurious flagship, Tesla branded itself as a premium, reliable, all-electric car manufacturer worldwide. Such a marketi ng strategy paired with its direct self-owned showrooms in mostly prominent urban centers around the world was and is genius. It was able to start in a small niche market of high-end electric sports vehicles and electric vehicles in general. Such a foundation laid the framework for the aforementioned Model S. Prior to Teslas dominance in the electric part of the automotive industry, a luxurious electric vehicle did not exist. The electric vehicles were mostly unappealing with odd designs and close to no features. These vehicles also had very low distance and poor battery life. They were plain and simply just not cool. Teslas introduction of both the Roadster and the Model S solved such a glaring issue. By manufacturing vehicles with rolling tablets similar to Apples iPads, Tesla became a big fish in a small pond. Not only were the cars cool looking, but they came with Teslas state of the art software that can update itself whenever it needs to – an ingenious social and cognitive technology strategy. Such self-updating technology in 2015 was absolutely unheard of. To date (as of 2018), most cars have yet to programmed with a similar feature. Teslas engineers as a result can upgrade the AI software and improve the cars mind by not even touching or servicing every vehicle. Such a stra tegic move by the firm is genius and implements extreme cost savings in the long-term. Competitors had and have had the ability to tear the Model S apart but ignored. Teslas Elon Musk simply is willing to assume the risk of hacking to really make the ultimate difference in the vehicles. With a strong focus of high-quality builds, Tesla was able to freely experiment and gain experience in the car industry. The firms technology and hardware perfected to a point where firms such as Daimler started utilizing Teslas battery packs and Toyota utilizing Teslas motors. Competitors such as General Motors had even created task forces to follow Teslas management teams so that the firm would not fall behind such a mighty firm. With superb quality builds, Tesla was able to gain customer confidence and trust quickly. The brand and its vehicles became a synonymy to speed, security, and go green. Celebrities such as Leonardo DiCaprio even purchased and promoted the technology insurgent ultimately bolstering the prestige of the firm. With directly owned showrooms, Tesla can directly sell to its customers. As a result, it can cultivate a specific, unique customer shopping experience unlike no other. With such an experience, consumers gain even more confidence in making their purchase. Teslas management wisely decided to use solely its own sales representatives and service staff. Such a move avoids conflicts of interests that can sprout from dealerships. Consequently, every Tesla location and shopping experience is of the utmost quality and does not vary from location to location unlike its competitors such as Daimler and Volkswagen. Tesla also combines its car sales with its services. The firm has created Service Plus centers which combine both retail and service in one location. Such thought process has proven to positively affect consumer enthusiasm and satisfaction. Furthermore, Tesla continuously acknowledges its consumers. It understands consumer issues such as distance problems as well as charging. As a result, Tesla has listened and manufactured hundreds of simple and fast chargers stations. The firm currently has 1375 supercharger stations with 11,414 superchargers worldwide and continues to grow. Teslas superb technology has been upgraded to allow the consumer to enter a destination on his or her touchscreen and the intuitive Trip Planner will automatically route the user through convenient Superchargers along the way. The recharge takes roughly 30 minutes and the Tesla application notifies the consumer when the car is ready for use. Many consumers have purchased cars on promotions that allow these consumers to utilize the charging stations for free. Teslas strategy in such promotes a brand that is both thoughtful and mindful of its consumers. Subsequently, Tesla has been incredibly successful since its foundation in 2003. Tesla launched its IPO on the Nasdaq exchange on June 29, 2010, offering 13.3 million shares at a price of $17 per share. The IPO consequently raised $226.1 million for the firm. As of today, that investment has soared to a gain of over 2,117%. Elon Musk, although ambitious and distinguished, has made many mistakes along his journey as a CEO. He utilizes Twitter to create a persona of Tony Stark from Iron Man. He is consistently in the media and ensures that he is constantly being interviewed to gain exposure. Such exposure is then associated with his firm- Tesla. Musks social technology strategy is ingenious and one of a kind – no other publicly traded firm has such a risk-taking CEO. However, his risky behavior produces an insane amount of volatility and concern within his stock as well. On August 7th, Elon Musk tweeted about taking the firm private with funding secured at $420 a share – the stock rose from $300 to $380 within two weeks. Following his tweet, the stock fell to $320, and Musk committed to keeping the firm public. On September 27th, the SEC filed lawsuit against Musk stating that his comment was fraudulent and could lose him his role as CEO and Chairman, pushing the stock down to nearly $260 a share. The following Monday, the SEC and Musk agreed to a settlement pushing the stock back over $300 a share. Such volatility scares many investors from the firm but those with a long-term perspective acknowledge that Musk simply wants to gain further social presence through such radical behavior. Such usage of social media tools has left the company only prosperous. The stock currently sits at near all-time highs with the SP being roughly flat for the last year. Tesla has clearly executed its corporate strategy beautifully. The firm has been incredibly successful across all boards. However, there are certain things the firm must do to ensure profitability and long-term growth. As Tesla continues to sell its vehicles and gain market share, the firm must maintain its current customer service levels. The firm must continue to offer promotions and be a firm for the consumer rather than for itself even if that means lower profit margins. The firm must also increase its output production to meet demands for its newly produced Model 3. Tesla has taken the risk to produce a more affordable car – the Model 3- a sedan with a 310-mile range and 0-60 acceleration in 3.3 seconds. As a result, the firm must acquire more funding to build another factory or expand its own. The current output per week is roughly 4,401. The firm has succeeded in something that no other automaker can take pride in claiming: Its made relatively affordable electric car, t he Model 3, that hundreds of thousands of people are lining up to buy. The only problem is that Elon Musk and the company cant produce enough of them. Consequently, it is imperative that the firm solve this issue immediately. Also, the firm must continue to invest as much money as it possibly can to improve its lithium ion batteries for longer range. Consumers would strongly value seeing the firm caring about its consumers distance per travel. The firm must also maintain its image of a brand. It must continue to only sell high-end looking and feeling cars regardless if the firm wants to market to lower end consumers or the general market. Although it will cost quite a hefty amount to maintain such a brand image and produce a longer distance battery while maintaining utmost customer service quality, it is essential for the future of Tesla. Tesla has become successful because of these very unique features the niche firm offers. Without them, Tesla becomes just like any other car manuf acturer. In order for all of these recommendations to occur, stakeholders must understand that profits will eventually come. Tesla has proven in 2017 and 2018 that it can be profitable and can meet production goals even though Musk always overestimates the amounts. Tesla is still a young company that is working towards profitability and understanding what works and what doesnt. It has proven itself in the automotive industry time and time again. Consequently, investors must be patient and provide Musk with the funding the firm requires to manufacture the cars properly and conduct the necessary RD for long term prosperity. Musk, as a salesperson and engineer, understands that in order to be successful, a trained and respected team must be in place. Although Musk is a workaholic that almost never sleeps, he must respect his team and must give them the ability to have a work-life balance. A total of 41 skilled executives left Tesla in 2018 which most definitely is not a good sign. Musk must investigate and understand the root of such a glaring issue and improve the companys culture to bolster the firms image and long-term success. In turn, he must promote an environment that is both ambitious and friendly- an environment where employees want to work and thrive in. Conclusively, Tesla has been bestowed with mostly success since its 15 years in business. The firm has executed perfectly on both social and cognitive technologies which in turn have allowed the business to flourish like no other in the automotive industry. Its previously mentioned dashing and risk taking corporate strategy across all boards has proven to be both volatile and rewarding. However, such success can only evolve in to long term prosperity if the firm maintains its core values. Tesla must maintain the high-end image brand it has created and must stress the utmost customer service quality. It must put the customer and its mission creating the safest, fastest, and most efficient electric-cars – before profits regardless of stakeholder complaints. Musk must also continue to take quantified risks through social media tools to bolster the company presence and push for RD to manufacture an even better lithium-ion to power the cars. However, while doing all of this, Musk must self-evaluate himself and his daunting company culture that has resulted in 41 high profile executives from leaving in 2018 alone. He must craft a culture that mixes its mission statement with ambition, quality, and balance. In turn, Tesla will become the number one automotive manufacturer and will see unprecedented prosperity for decades.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Best Books for Kids and Adults Interested in Greek Mythology

Which are the best sources for readers interested in the Greek myths and the history behind them? Here are suggestions for people of varying ages and levels of knowledge. Greek Myths for Young People For young people, a wonderful resource is the lovely, illustrated Daulaires Book of Greek Myths. There are also online, out of copyright, and therefore somewhat old-fashioned versions of the Greek myths written for young people, including Nathaniel Hawthornes popular Tanglewood Tales, Padraic Colums story of the Golden Fleece, which is one of the central episodes in Greek mythology, and Charles Kingsleys The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales for My Children. Anthologies of Greek myths that are appropriate for children include Tales of the Greek Heroes: Retold From the Ancient Authors, by Roger Lancelyn Green.  Black Ships Before Troy: The Story of the Iliad, by Rosemary Sutcliff, is a good introduction to Homer and the tale of Troy that is so central to any study of ancient Greece. Reading for Adults With Limited Knowledge of Greek Myths For somewhat older people who are curious about the stories and real-life history related to Greek myths, a good choice is Thomas Bulfinchs The Age of Fable or Stories of Gods and Heroes coupled with Ovids Metamorphoses. Bulfinch is widely available, including online, and the stories entertain as well as explain, with the caveat that he prefers Roman names like Jupiter and Proserpine to Zeus and Persephone; his approach is all explained in the introduction. Ovids work is a classic that ties together so many stories as to be somewhat overwhelming, which is why it is best read in combination with Bulfinch, who, incidentally, developed many of his stories by translating Ovid. To be truly familiar with Greek mythology, you really should know a good portion of the allusions Ovid makes. For Adults With More Advanced Knowledge For those already familiar with Bulfinch, the next book to pick up is Timothy Gantz Early Greek Myths, although this is a 2-volume reference work, rather than a book to read. If you havent already read The Iliad, The Odyssey, and Hesiods Theogony, those are essentials for Greek mythology. The works of the Greek tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, are also basics; Euripides may be the easiest to digest for modern American readers.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Brief Note On Falling And Injury Prevention - 1308 Words

Kinematics of Falling Injury prevention is one of the most significant driving forces for the study of biomechanics. Understanding what causes people to get injured allows us to design better, safer products and systems that make injury less likely. While relatively new, the kinematic study of falls and maintaining stability is an important area in injury prevention. This is especially relevant to the elderly, who fall at a much higher rate than the average population. According to one study, 32% of people over the age of 74 fall at least once a year. Individuals over the age of 85 are almost 100 times more likely to die as the result of a fall than those younger than 65, making this figure even more alarming (Luchies, Alexander, Schultz,†¦show more content†¦Fall impact research measures the speeds and forces involved once an individual has lost his/her balance and is going to hit the ground. Fall recovery research was conducted to find differences in how young and old people responded to sudden pulls at the waist. Little difference was found in the kinematics of body segment and joint rotation. Differences were, however, identified in the number and length of steps taken by the older and younger participants (Luchies et al., 1994). Though it yielded interesting results about balance recovery strategies, fall recovery research failed to pay dividends in terms of injury prevention. Studies this removed from the actual impact of a fall are unable to find substantial injury-provoking differences between younger and older people. Highly concerned with improving safety for the elderly, researchers like Luchies and colleagues refrained from measuring scenarios where participants actually lost balance. This limited the scope of their findings. A study by van den Kroonenberg, Hayes, and McMahon (1996) revolutionized fall research. It was the first study to use â€Å"human volunteers as subjects to study fall kinematics† and involved video taping 19 to 30-year-old participants falling on cushioned mats. The shift in focus from fall recovery to fall impact opened up a brand new frontier of inquiry. Measuring the kinematics acting on free-falling individuals and those

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Sport Marketing As a Part of Promotion free essay sample

Anton Bichan K. P. Pilova, research supervisor O. D. Shvets, linguistic communication advisor National Mining University, Dnipropetrovsk Sport Marketing As a Part of Promotion Sport is ever unpredictable and emotional. It gives us strength and wellness. But today athletics is the major component of the amusements industry. Sport is a merchandise, witnesss are clients. Sport selling is a portion of selling which focuses both on the publicity of athleticss events and squads every bit good as the publicity of other merchandises and services through featuring events and athleticss squads. It is a service in which the component promoted can be a physical merchandise or a trade name name. The end is to supply the client with schemes to advance the athletics or to advance something other than athletics through athleticss. Sport selling urges ranks, and gross revenues and acknowledgment represent the biggest benefits for the companies, the jocks, the associations, the conferences and the athleticss events organisers. We will write a custom essay sample on Sport Marketing As a Part of Promotion or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Selling helps to understand the client and the market place and informed selling determinations help to increase the company # 8217 ; s, nine # 8217 ; s or association # 8217 ; s public presentation. On the other manus, being an amusement, athleticss are considered to hold a big value with famous person position. Due to the position and importance in people # 8217 ; s life, athleticss are considered a profitable and sustainable selling beginning. Sport selling is divided into two sectors. Firs T is the selling of athletics squads and events. The selling of athletics events and squads is the selling scheme which is designed or developed a â€Å"live† activity, which has a specific subject. Largely this sort of scheme is used as a manner to advance, show or exhibit different things, such as a athleticss squad, a athletics association among others. There are different events that can clearly represent this construct, such as the Super Bowl, the Olympic Games, the UEFA Champions League and the FIFA World Cup. Those events are promoted by Television and wireless commercials every bit good as by the contracts signed with other companies in order to convey the event. The 2nd sector is the selling of merchandises through athletics. Marketing through athletics it is a selling scheme that can be used in two different ways. The usage of selling and publicity can be carried out through the athletics. In this instance, the usage of selling is under duty of the different sporting associations. When utilizing selling and publicity through the athleticss club the duty falls on the different athleticss nines. The distinctive feature of athleticss is the issue that # 8220 ; athletics is the lone amusement where, no affair how many times you go back, you neer know the ending. # 8221 ; This remarkable fact is used by marketing companies as an advantage because in this manner every clip the audience efforts to an event several times they will comprehend the advertizements once more and once more, therefore the selling of athleticss reflects otherwise, than in other usual countries or common industries, a broad field of chances and diversenesss for the differ ent companies which operate on this field.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Structural Family Therapy

Model Description Among the existing variety of therapies for a family, it is hard to define the most appropriate or the less effective because every family is unique, and its members face different problems and misunderstandings. In the current paper, one of the family therapy models, the structural family therapy by Salvador Minuchin, will be discussed. Its historical background, some facts from the developer’s life, and different aspects of the theory will be analyzed to make the evaluation of the case study within the frames of the chosen model possible.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Structural Family Therapy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Historical Background Structural family therapy (SFT) is one of the available models of treatment offered to all members of a family on the basis of the possible structural change and communication within a family. It was developed in the middle of the 1970s by one of the brightest representatives of the Philadelphian Child Guidance Clinic, Salvador Minuchin. His physician experience in the army in Israel and the work with children in New York helped to understand that personal problems are based on a family and the philosophies inherent to it. The Israel families turned out to be a good example for Minuchin on how a variety of cultures and interests may be gathered in one certain community that has to follow the order and mind the traditions around. Another historical perspective from Minuchin’s like comes from his childhood. As a son in a Jewish family during the 1920s, who had to live in a unique Argentina, Minuchin faced the necessity to learn different rules and truths and add them to the life of his own (Prochaska Norcross, 2013). In fact, his life was not only about the challenges. The existed cultural diversity helped Minuchin to realize that every person has to perform his/her own role and be ready to change it in acco rdance with the demands set by society. His practice at the Wiltwyck School for Boys opened a number of perspectives with the help of which Minuchin (in a company of several colleagues) started to develop some new approaches to family therapy and offered problematic boys the ideas of how to improve their lives (Miller, 2011). A chance to work with children and their families proved the idea that family therapy had to be based on trust and loyalty to the ideas; and the role of a therapist should not be only as a mentor or teacher but be a good advisor, a coach, who could implement the changes and participate in the process at the same time. Salvador Minuchin In fact, the life of Salvador Minuchin may serve as a good explanation of his structural family therapy and general intentions to help people around through the work with a whole family. Minuchin raised in a Russian-Jewish family in Argentina. The necessity to combine different traditions and perform the roles according to the ex pectations of the others was obvious (Miller, 2011).Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Being deeply impressed by the works of Jean-Jacque Rousseau about the delinquents and their place in society, he made a decision to connect his life with psychology in some way. He entered the medical university and united his education with politics opposing the ideas of Juan Peron, the head of the majority of Argentina’s institutions. With time, he moved to Israel and worked with oppressed children using his own experience in combining rules and traditions. The American practice in the sphere of psychiatry provided him with the necessary amount of knowledge. The works by Harry Stack Sullivan made Minuchin pay more attention to family therapy on the basis the troubled youth (Miller, 2011). Within a short period of time, he was ready to introduce a new theory of how to help families and d ivide their functions in a proper way. It was structural family therapy. Therapist’s Role In family therapy, a therapist can perform a number of roles from being a leader in the relations to guide every action properly to stay a third-party observant making notes and conclusions (Simon, 2012). One of the peculiar features of SFT is the attention to the therapist and his/her role in the process. According to this theory, the therapist remains to be an active participant as he/she is responsible for the implementation of the changes in a family and the process of restructuring itself. Due to his own experience, Minuchin underlines the fact that any therapist has to respect each family’s culture and underline its uniqueness; this is why it is an obligatory task for the therapist to gather some information before therapy takes place (Minuchin Fishman, 2009). It is necessary to clear up what each member find the best for a family and how it is possible to unite their inter ests within one community that is called a family.  The therapist has to help every family member and explain how they can establish healthy relations and consider their own skills and interests. It is possible for the therapist to use some physical objects and moves to achieve better results of a therapeutic process (Jones-Smith, 2014). In general, SFT presupposes the role of the therapist being important indeed, and Minuchin makes everything possible to explain what and when a professional counselor has to do.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Structural Family Therapy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Essence of the Theory of Change One of the primary SFT characteristics is the possibility to describe family problems and offer solutions with the help of â€Å"spatial and organizational metaphors† (Goldenberg Goldenberg, 2012). These techniques promote the required portion of a change in any family organization and structure. The only important requirement that has to be considered is that the change should take place before all symptoms are relieved because the way of how a whole family can function defines the way of how every member functions within.  According to the theory, the structure of a family changes as soon as the positions of the family members undergo some changes and vice versa. Each new function is the possibility to define and analyze the same problem from a new perspective. The therapist, who is going to offer a change, has to check whether the experience of a family is appropriate for the chosen intervention. Every hierarchy created depends on the functions performed by every member. There has to be a leader, who should be an example for the rest and an advisor. At the same time, whose, who perform the supplementary roles, should not consider themselves diminished or misjudged. The therapist has to explain that any family therapy should be organized acco rding to such order. Target of Intervention When the therapist starts working with a family, he/she has to identify the targets of the therapy interventions in a proper way. A goal for change has to be established (Jones-Smith, 2014). The target of intervention is the change that happens when the therapist try to help each family member to create the necessary boundaries within a family that are â€Å"neither too rigid nor too diffuse† (Jones-Smith, 2014). The intervention results in the change in the frames of which it becomes easier to make decisions and distribute the issue of power in different ways to choose the most appropriate one. It is expected that dysfunctional family structures are improved, and a family gets the required portion of explanations and suggestions on how they have to behave and react to each other’s activities. Assessment from the Approach SFT provides the therapist with a chance to evaluate the conditions under which a family lives, define mi sunderstanding and challenges that take place, and offer several appropriate solutions for a situation to be improved. The following assessment of a family is possible from the therapy offered by Minuchin:Advertising Looking for case study on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Family hierarchy according to the powers gained (proper, improper, in need of improvements); Boundaries between each member of a family (proper, improper, in need of improvements); Subsystems of a family (present, absent, necessary); Therapist’s role (active, passive, leading, minimized). As soon as this kind of family evaluation takes place, the therapist is able to continue working and making the necessary implementations gradually. Normalcy, Health, and Pathology within the Model Normalcy, health, and pathology are the assumptions that help to identify the necessity and essence of assessment and interventions in a family. Family normalcy is usually characterized by the presence of absence of symptoms that can disturbed or destroy a family (Walsh, 2012). In the Minuchin’s therapy, a normal family is defined as â€Å"nonstressful, living in constant harmony and cooperation† (Walsh, 2012, p. 30). This is why when parents or other grown-ups of a family face the problems related to bringing up children, sexual life, or the outside world, they are bothered and require some professional help. It is normal for a family to struggle with some problems in case all struggles can be ended with some compromises. In terms of health, Walsh (2012) explains a healthy family as the parents of which know a lot and can solve intrapsychic conflicts and meet the needs to promote their children’s development. Finally, SFT defines pathology as the situation when families face with stress or other challenges and suffer from increasing â€Å"the rigidity of their transactional patterns and boundaries† and inabilities to â€Å"avoid or resist any exploration of alternatives† (Walsh, 2012, p. 31). Cultural and Diversity Factors within the Model SFT is the model that is too sensitive to cultural and diversity factors because it is based on the way of how the therapist, as well as a family, can define cultural priorities and survive the diversi ties around. Minuchin underlines that the therapist has to respect cultural preferences of a family and do not try to change them or diminish their role in a family’s life. In fact, both, cultural and diversity, factors play an important role in family therapy as it helps to show the family how unique and special their family life actually is.  Children are in need of an explanation of how their own cultures have to be introduced to society the most. They should feel respect to their diversity and a chance to share this uniqueness with a family but not feel sorry or disappointment. Parents are responsible for the way of how children understand their cultural needs in regards to their family hierarchy, and the therapist should explain all aspects accordingly. Type of a Model (Strength-Based or Deficit-Based) Therapy models may be of two types, strengths-based and deficit based. Deficit-based models aim at addressing the patient’s needs and problems, and strengths-base d models focus on people’s attributes that can promote health. The latter approach differs from the former by the possibility to use the already given features and work them out to avoid the development of possible pathologies (Xie, 2013). The therapy offered by Minuchin is of a strengths-based type as it focuses on the outcomes, considers family as the primary concept that has to be used, and defines the possibility to structure a family as one of the ways to help people and use their strengths avoiding weaknesses and deficits. Intervention Examples SFT may have a number of interventions. Still, the most crucial are as follows: Join a family in a friendly-formal way; Analyze the situation and evaluate family; Set the goals; Identify the rules that have to be followed; Define the roles according to the family hierarchy; Change the roles and observe the results; Support communication; Do not try to give the directions (but explain that these are just pieces of advice). All t hese steps help the therapist realize whether it is possible to help a family and identify the root of the existing and potential problems and overcome the majority of them. Model Application Role of the Counselor for the Case in Specific Aspects In the case under consideration, the role of the therapist remains to be crucial as he takes responsibility for the organization of communication between all members of a family. The therapist has to analyze each member separately and tries to define the aspects that can bother them. It is necessary not to become a friend for them because Jimmy is one of the most vulnerable members of the family, who want to gain more someone’s attention. The therapist should not provide Jimmy with empty hopes and clearly define his role as a counselor, who is going to understand and suggest the options that can change the situation within the family. Possible Changes within the Family Among the variety of possible changes for the family under consid eration, the following suggestions may be considered. For example: Jane is bothered by her inability to raise her little daughter Sunny (she may be offered to ask for a part-time job); Paul wants his wife paying more attention to him as a man (he may use his free time to amaze Jane with his own works and achievements); Jimmy is jealous of his father spending more time with Sunny than with him (he can think about some hobbies and the activities to be involved in together with his father). Aspects that Undergo Changes The therapist has to focus on the next aspects with the family and be ready to promote some changes in: Communication between the family members; Occupation of the family members; Identification of the family culture as the thing that can unite all of them; Social norms and rules that have to be followed by all family members as equal members of society; Obligations to each other. All these aspects have to be changed in some way, and every change has to be explained. Understanding of the Case within the Model’s Framework The Duncan’s is almost an ordinary American family that has to face some challenges because of the economic conditions of the country and the obligations that have to be followed. Jane and Paul Duncan have to understand that their new duties should not influence their relations, and they have to take some steps to develop the duties according to the hierarchy that has been developed earlier. The wife has to demonstrate her respect to the husband even in spite of the fact that it is she, who earns money. The husband has to remember that he has a son, who needs more attention. At the same time, e new-born daughter can take much time as well. The therapist should discuss all these points and advise how to improve the current weak situation. Model’s Assumptions around Normalcy, Health, and Pathology In general, the evaluation of the case from the normalcy, health, and pathology shows the following picture: The family’s level of normalcy is medium because of the evident stresses that take place from time to time. It is a health family because of the absence of bad habits and the necessity to feed properly. There are no evident pathologies, just the inability to communicate directly and speak out loud about personal discontents and desires. The family has all changes to be changed and â€Å"healed† because the cooperation is still possible, harmony can be achieved, and several alternatives can be offered by the therapist and accepted by the family as a result of open communications and discussions. Cultural and Diversity Aspects of the Case The case under analysis does not touch upon some cultural and diversity aspects of society. The family consists of the White Americans, who live under the traditions accepted by the United States. The family likes different thematic holidays and tries to participate in all parties to entertain children and show them how the majority of pe ople can live. At the same time, the family can use its cultural preferences as the thing that can unite them and offer a common hobby (for the father and the son) or a captivating holiday (for the husband and the wife). The family should get a strong basis that cannot be postponed, or moved, or neglected. The family has to have something to believe in. The cultural issue is one of the most available suggestions for the family under consideration. Model’s Status and the Case SFT, as the strength-based type of model, is applied to the case as the members of the family expect to achieve successful outcomes. They have a number of strengths and positive intentions to benefit from the changed offered by a professional. Interventions Applied in the Case The possible interventions in the case are: Private talks with every member of a family; Promotion of open communication between all members; Distribution of the roles and mutual exchange of the roles so that every member of the fa mily can understand the pros and cons of each other’s position; Identification of one common interest can unite a family and make its members spend together sometime. Assessment of the Model of the Hypothetical Case Study The success of SFT is the possibility to implement it in a variety of cases. The therapist has to be mature enough to be close to each family member but never cross the line and become a friend. Still, it is necessary to remember that Minuchin’s therapy is more applicable for large families so that their structures, boundaries, and functions can be changed. References Goldenberg, H. Goldenberg, I. (2012). Family therapy: An overview. Belmont, CA:Cengage Learning. Jones-Smith, E. (2014). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: An integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. Miller, A. (2011). Instructor’s manual for Salvador Minuchin on family therapy. Mill Valley, CA: Psychhotherapy.net. Minuchin, S. Fishman, C. (2009). Fami ly therapy techniques. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Prochaska, J. Norcross, J. (2013). Systems of psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Simon, G. (2012). The role of the therapist: What effective therapists do. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 8-12. Walsh, F. (2012). Normal family processes: Growing diversity and complexity. New York: Guilford Press. Xie, H. (2013). Strengths-based approach for mental health recovery. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 7(2), 5-10. This case study on Structural Family Therapy was written and submitted by user Dario Snow to help you with your own studies. 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Friday, March 13, 2020

How to Get 36 on ACT Science 13 Strategies From a Perfect Scorer

How to Get 36 on ACT Science 13 Strategies From a Perfect Scorer SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you scoring between 26-34 on ACT Science? Do you want to raise that score as high as possible - to a perfect 36? Getting to a 36 ACT Sciencescore isn't easy. It'll require perfection. But with hard work and my strategies below, you'll be able to do it. I've consistently scored 36 on Scienceon my real ACTs, and I know what it takes. Follow my advice, and you'll get a perfect score - or very close. Brief note: This article is suited for students already scoring a 26 on ACT Scienceor above. If you're below this range, my "How to Improve Your ACT Science Score" articleis more appropriate for you. Follow the advice in that article, then come back to this one when you've reached a 26. Overview For somereason, there aren't very many ACT Science guides out there. There's a lot of material for ACT Math and ACT Reading, but people just seem to shy away from the science section. In contrast, at PrepScholar we've written what we believe are the best guides to ACT Science available anywhere, and we've published them online for free. In this article, I'm going to discuss why scoring a 36 in ACT Science is a good idea, what it takes to score a 36, and then go into the 13 key ACT Sciencestrategies so you know how to get a 36 on ACT Science. Stick with me - as an advanced student, you probably already know that scoring high is good. But it's important to know why a 36 Sciencescore is useful, since this will fuel your motivation to get a high score. Then we'll get into the meat of the article. Finally, in this guide, I talk mainly about getting to a 36. But if your goal is a 32, these strategies still equally apply. Understand the Stakes: Why a 36 ACT Science? Let's make something clear: for most college applications, a 34 composite on an ACT is equivalent to a perfect 36. Almost no college is going to give you more credit for a 36 than a 34. You've already crossed their score threshold, and whether you get in now depends on the rest of your application. So if you're already scoring a 34, don't waste your time studying trying to get a 36 unless you're applying to a STEM program at a top tier school (which we discuss more in a few paragraphs). For most schools, you're already set, and it's time to work on strengthening your extracurriculars, coursework, and overall application. But if you're scoring a 33 or below AND you want to go to a top college, it's worth your time to push your score up to a 34 or above. There's a big difference between a 32 and a 34, largely because it's easy for top students to get a 32but a lot harder to get a 34. A 33 places you right around average at Harvard and Princeton, and being average is bad in terms of admissions, since the admissions rate is typically below 10%. A 36 in ACT Science can also help you compensate for weaknesses in other sections like Reading or English.By and large, schools consider your ACT composite score moreso than your individual section scores. If you can get a 36 in ACT Science, that gives you more flexibility in your English, Math, and Reading scores. It can compensate for a 32 in one other section, for example, to bring your average back up to 34. MIT expects a 36 in ACT Math. There are only two scenarios where a 36 in ACT Scienceis really important beyond just raising your composite score. The first is if you're planning for a science or quantitative major (like biology, physics, statistics, chemistry). The second is if you're applying to a highly selective technical school like MIT or Caltech. Here's the reason: college admissions is all about comparisons between applicants. The school wants to admit the best, and you're competing with other people in the same "bucket" as you. By applying as a math/science major, you're competing against other math/science folks: people for whom ACT Scienceis easy. Really easy. Even though schools don't typically release their ACT scores by section, they do release SAT section scores. As a proxy for ACT Science, we can take a look at SAT Math scores at top schools. (I know ACT Science and SAT Math are different, but I'm going to bet that people who are good at math are also going to score high on ACT Science). Here are a few real examples. For Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Caltech, and even less selective schools like Harvey Mudd, the 75th percentile SAT Math score is an 800 (or equivalent to an ACT 36). That means at least 25% of all students at these schools have an 800 in SAT Math, or a 36 on ACT Math. Even more surprising: the 25th percentile score for SAT Math at MIT and Caltech are 750 and 770, respectively, or a 34 on the ACT!This means if you score a 34 on your ACT Math, you'rewell below average for these schools! That's how competitive these top-tier colleges are. I'm not going to lie. ACT Science was easy for me. I got 36 on pretty much every practice test and official ACT I ever took. This was largely because I was a science nerd in high school, competing in the academic olympiadsand doing a ton of science research as an extracurricular. I also practiced hard and applied the strategies below to achieve perfection. So reading science passages was like reading English to me. You're competing against people like me. And if you apply as a science major with a 34 or below on Science, schools like MIT, Harvard, and Princeton are going to doubt your ability. Because ACT Scienceis supposed to be easyfor you. But if you can work your way to a 36, you show that you're at an equal level (at least on this metric). Even if it takes you a ton of work, all that matters is the score you achieve at the end. Know That You Can Do It This isn't just some fuzzy feel-good message you see on the back of a Starbucks cup. I mean, literally, you and every other reasonably intelligent student can score a 36 on ACT Science. The reason most people don't is they don't try hard enough or they don't study the right way. Even if you don't consider yourself a science geek, or you got a B in Biology, you're capable of this. More than anything else, your ACT score is a reflection ofhow hard you work and how strategically you study. Here's why: the ACT is a weird test. When you take it, don't you get the sense that many questions are nothing like what you've seen in school? It's purposely designed this way. The ACT can't test difficult concepts, because this would be unfair for students who never took AP Physics.The ACT Science sectioncan't ask you to solve cold fusionor build a rocket to get to Mars. The ACT is a national test, which means it needs to be a level playing field for ALL students around the country. So it HAS to test scientific concepts that every high school student will cover: how to interpret data graphs, what the scientific method is, how scientific theories disagree from each other. You've learned all of this already in high school. But if all the questions were easy and straightforward, then everyone would score too high. So the ACT needs to test these concepts in strange ways. This trips up students who don't prepare, but it rewards students whocan predict exactly how the test is going to work. Here's an example graph from a real ACT test: This is one of the most complex graphs I've seen in ACT Science. I can guarantee you've never seen something like this graph before in school. But there's good news - every other high school student in America hasn't seen this graph before either! This means that the ACT expects you to be able to understand this graph using basic science skills. Skills like looking at the twoaxes, understanding how a plot works, and how to get data values from this graph. Just to prove this to you, further down we're going to understand this graph and go through a sample question. On ACT Science, there will alwaysbeweird scenarios you've never seen before, from composition of sediment to dinosaur claw sizes. But more than anything, ACT Science isn't actually about science - it's a lot more about reading comprehension and logic. The key to improving your ACT Science score is to: Master the types of passages the ACT tests Draw on the basic skills you already know to solve the questions Practice on a lot of questions so you learn from your mistakes and know the test inside and out. I'll go into more detail about exactly how to do this. First, let's see how many questions you need to answer correctly to score a 36. What It Takes to Get a 36 in ACT Science If we have a target score in mind, it helps to understand what you need to get that score on the actual test. I compiled the raw score to ACT Science Score conversion tables from four official ACT tests. (If you could use a refresher on how the ACT is scored and how raw scores are calculated, read this.) Raw Score Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 40 (miss 0) 36 36 36 36 39 (miss 1) 34 34 35 35 38(miss 2) 32 32 33 34 37(miss 3) 30 30 32 33 36(miss 4) 29 29 30 31 35(miss 5) 28 28 29 30 34(miss 6) 27 27 28 29 Source: ACT On all 4 of these tests, if you get a perfect raw score and miss 0 questions, you get a perfect 36 score. No surprise there. But if you miss just ONE question, you immediately drop down to a 34 or a 35. Miss another, and you drop to a 32, 33, or 34. This goes to show that the stakes are high. The more difficult the test is, the more leeway you have, but the grading scale istough. The safest thing to do is to aim for perfection. On every practice test, you need to aim for a perfect raw score for a 36. Whatever you're scoring now, take note of the difference you need to get to a 36. For example, if you're scoring a 30 now, you need to answer 3-4 more questions right to get to a 36. As a final example, here's a screenshot from my exact score report: 13 Strategies to Get a 36 on ACTScience OK - so we've covered why getting a higher ACT Science score is important, why you specifically are capable of improving your score, and the raw score you need to get to your target. Now we'll actually get into actionable strategies that you should use in your own studying to maximize your score improvement. What's your greatest weakness? Strategy 1: Understand Your High-Level Weakness: Content or Time Management Knowing your weaknesses in ACT prep is SUPERimportant. When you know your weaknesses, you can surgically focus your time on what will improve your score most.When you don't, it'll feel like pounding your head against the wall. Every student has different flaws in ACT Science. Some aren't comfortable with underlying skills, like reading data graphs. Others get bogged down in the minutiae of science passages and can't solve questions in time. (As we'll discuss, the ACT Sciencesection applies pretty heavy time pressure. So you likely do suffer from some time pressure - we're trying to figure out how much) Here's how you can figure out which one applies more to you: Take only the sciencesection of a practice test. We have the complete list of free practice tests here. For that section, use a timer for 35 minutes. Treat it like a real test. If time runs out and you're not done yet, keep working for as long as you need. But starting now, for every new answer or answer that you change, mark it with a special note as "Extra Time." Grade your test using the answer key and score chart, but we want two scores: 1) The Realistic score you got under normal timing conditions, and 2) The Extra Time score. This is why you marked the questions you answered or changed during Extra Time. Seewhat we're doing here? By marking which questions you did under Extra Time, we can figure out what score you'd get if you were given all the time you needed. This will help us figure out where your weaknesses lie. If you didn't take any extra time, then your Extra Time score is the same as your Realistic score. Here's a flowchart to help you figure this out: Was your Extra Time score a 32 or above? If NO (Extra Time score 32), then you have remaining content weaknesses. You might have weaknesses across a range of skills, or a deep weakness in only a few skills. (We'll cover this later). Your first plan of attack should be to develop more comfort with ACT Science question types and passages. If YES (Extra Time score 32), then: Was your Realistic score a 32 or above? If NO (Extra Time score 32, Realistic 32), then that means you have a difference between your Extra Time score and your Realistic score. If this difference is more than two points, then you have some big problems with time management. We need to figure out why this is. Are you getting bogged down reading the science passages? Or did specific types of problems slow you down? If you practice a lot and learn more efficient ways to tackle science passages, you'll be able to reduce your time significantly. More on this later. If YES (both Extra Time and Realistic scores 32), then you have a really good shot at getting a 36. Compare your Extra Time and Realistic score - if they differed by more than one point, then you would benefit from learning how to solve questions more quickly. If not, then you likely can benefit from shoring up on your last content weaknesses and avoiding careless mistakes (more on this strategy later). Hopefully that makes sense. Typically I see that students have both timing and content issues in ACT Science, but you might find that one is much more dominant for you than the other. For example, if you can get a 36 with extra time, but score a 32 in regular time, you know exactly that you need to work on time management to get a 36. This perfect ACT Science guide covers both time management and content issues, so you're in luck. If you learn that time management is a big problem for you, here's one of the most likely problems with the way you approach ACT Science... Strategy 2: Don't Waste Time onthe Passage and Figures ACT Science passages are full of scientific details that don’t actually matter to answering the questions. This is especially true of charts. The ACT does this on purpose to confuse you and to mimic what real scientific research looks like. But you aren’t reading a science journal – you’re answering ACT Science questions. A common mistake people make is to try too hard to understand the passage in its entirety. They want to understand every detail in every chart. This can happen regardless of how strong a scientist you think you are. If you’re a science geek, you’re tempted to understand all the details since you want to flex your science muscles. If you’re not a science geek, it’s harder to distinguish what’s useful or not, since it all looks the same. Trying to understand the entire passage is a HUGE waste of time because most of the passage isn’t going to have a question asked about it. This is true in ACT Reading, and it’s even more true in ACT Science. So what should you do instead? Skim the passage and understand the passage at a very high level. Answer these two questions only: What’s the main point here? What’s the figure showing? That’s it. When I read ACT Science passages, I don’t understand the deep details of what’s happening. I get the gist and I move on to the questions. Let’s try an example from a real ACT Science passage. I’m going to show you how useless most of the passage is and how little you need to understand to answer the questions. My skimming: There is an old lake. The lake sediment tells us about the climate in the past. They mention average temperature for figure 3, so that’s probably what the main point is. There’s a weird oxygen symbol 18O, but all I need to know is that SMALLER values mean COLDER. This is a map showing three sites. We’ll probably be looking at samples from these three sites. This shows us a cutaway section of the lake, with the three sites from Figure 1. The y-axis is elevation. The key shows that each colored section is a different layer. Lake clay, glacial till, bedrock. The layers change as you move across the graph. How they change I’m not going to care about until I get asked about it. I have no idea what the hell â€Å"glacial till† is but I’m not going to worry about that, since I’ll bet the ACT isn’t going to ask me to define it. Oh lord, a bunch of graphs designed to be confusing. OK. Well they all look about the same. We’ll just look at Site 1. The y-axis shows depth, so the further down the deeper we go. The x-axis shows the 18O thing. From left to right, this value gets larger. From the passage we know that the SMALLER 18O is, the COLDER it is. So the LARGER 18O is, the HOTTER it is. What Site 1 shows is as you go UP in depth, you get a LARGER 18O value, which means it’s getting HOTTER. Now look at the other 2 Sites. Site 2 looks about the same, except for a glacial till boundary. Site 3 looks the same as Site 1. And now there’s this formula. I’m not even going to bother with this crap until they ask me a question about it. Notice from my notes that I really understand the passage only at a high level. I’m not getting bogged down in details, and I’m not understanding every detail of every graph. Doing that would be a waste of time. Just to convince you this high level of understanding works, we’re actually going to answer all five questions for thispassage. Lake clay is gray. Where is it thinnest? Winnipeg, F. You actually didn't even have to read the passage to solve this! You could solve it just by looking at the picture. We want to find the SMALLEST 18O value, which means it’s more on the LEFTside of the graph. From the dots we see that’s going to be at the BOTTOM LEFTof the figure. Choice C. Once again, you barely had to read the passage to solve this! It's just figuring out where the dots are. OK, so figure 2. We start from Grand Forks on the right, then move to Site 3. Lake clay, the gray piece, gets THICKER. They say this in the question, and we see it in the figure. The question asked about glacial till, the striped layer under it. It gets THINNER as you go from Grand Forks to Site 3. So thickness DECREASES, choice J. Yet once again, you barely had to know the passage to solve this! OK, we want the elevation of the TOPof GLACIAL TILL at each of three sites. Glacial till is the STRIPED layer. At Site 1, the top is 200. At Site 2, the top is 205ish. At site 3, it’s 180 ish. Answer choice C is the only one that fits these values. YET AGAIN you barely had to know the passage! To rephrase: it rains. Water gets to 3m deep. What is the 18O 3m deep? Look at figure 3 at a depth of 3m. In each figure, it’s around -15. Answer J. Finally, surprise surprise, you didn't have to know the passage at all to answer this question. EASY PEASY. Notice all the crap we didn’t have to care about: In the passage, we didn’t have to care about how old the lake was or how it formed. Against my expectation, we didn’t even have to care about what 18O means about temperature, so I actually over-read the passage and wasted my time! We didn’t use Figure 1 at all. Stupid map. In figure 2, we didn’t care at all about bedrock. Also, we only needed to care about how the layers changed when we were asked about it. In figure 3, we didn’t have to care at all about how Site 2 had a glacial till layer. We sure as hell didn’t have to know what the formula meant. I hope you get the point. So much of each passage is USELESSto getting the questions right. The ACT knows this, and they WANT you to get bogged down. â€Å"Oh gee, I wonder what bedrock is? How might they ask questions about this?† â€Å"Boy this formula looks real tough. What is 18O, and what is 16O? What’s groundwater and what’s standard water? Why multiply by 1,000?† You can waste so many minutes trying to make sense of the entire passage. If you have time management problems, skimming the passage can be a huge time savings for you! Again, when you read the passage focus on only two questions: What is the MAIN POINT of the passage? What is the MAIN POINT of each figure? I’ve started yelling more just because of how angry this test makes me. So let me take a deep breath. Moving on†¦ Disappointed with your ACT scores? Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically. Strategy 3: Understand EVERY Type of ACT Science Passage and Question ACT Science stands out as the most structured and predictable section on the ACT. What I mean by that is ACT Science has three passage types, and each passage type has specific question types associated with it. This is unlike ACT English, where all five passages have all sorts of random question types associated with it. The great thing about predictability is that it's really easy to diagnose where your problems are and then get focused practice on your weaknesses. Below are the passage types and question types associated with them.I've linked to our guides for every question type, butfirst I suggest you finish reading this 36 guide to get the high-level picture, then come back to the detailed guides. 3 Data Representation Passages - describes a study, heavy on graphs and charts Read-the-GraphQuestions Interpreting Trends Calculating Values 3 Research Summaries Passages - describes an experiment with multiple parts Experimental Design Hypothetical Experimental Changes Interpreting Experiments 1 Conflicting Viewpoints Passage - two or more scientists disagree Understanding Viewpoints Comparing Viewpoints Here's a helpful writeup of the three types of ACT Science passages and an overview of question types. Understanding the content on ACT Science is critical because you next have to understand precisely where you make your mistakes. Our PrepScholar ACT program does the hard work for you by dividing up the entire test into specific skills you need to master. For every skill in ACT Science and every other section, you'll get a focused lesson and a quiz customized to your skill level. This is how I studied for the ACT and got a perfect score, so that's how I designed our prep program to work. If you could use help breaking down the ACT like this, definitely check out our PrepScholar ACT program. Strategy 4:Do a Ton of Practice, and Understand Every Single Mistake On the path to perfection, you need to make sure every single one of your weak points is covered. Even one mistake on ACT Science will knock you down from a 36. The first step is simply to do a ton of practice. If you're studying from free materials or from books, you have access to a lot of practice questions in bulk. As part of our PrepScholar program, we have over 1,500 ACT questions customized to each skill. The second step - and the more important part - is to be ruthless about understanding your mistakes. Every mistake you make on a test happens for a reason.If you don't understand exactly why you missed that question, you will make that mistake over and over again. I've seen students who have completed ten official ACT practice tests. They've solved over 400 sciencequestions, but they're still nowhere near a 36 on ACT Science. Why? They never truly understood their mistakes. They just pounded their heads against the wall over and over again. Think of yourself as an exterminator, and your mistakes are cockroaches. You need to eliminate every single one - and find the source of each one - or else the infestation is going to continue and your restaurant's going to be shut down. Here'swhat you need to do: On every practice test or question set that you take, mark every question that you're even 20% unsure about. When you grade your test or quiz, review every single question that you marked, and every incorrect answer. This way even if you guessed an answer correctly, you'll make sure to review it. In a notebook, write down the gist of the question, why you missed it, and what you'll do to avoid that mistake in the future. Have separate sections by passage type and skill(like data representation - calculations, or conflicting viewpoint). It's not enough to just think about it and move on. It's not enough to just read the answer explanation. It's not even enough to understand how to get the right answer. You have to think HARDabout why you SPECIFICALLYfailed on this question. By taking this structured approach to your mistakes,you'll now have a running log of every question you missed, and your reflection on why. No excuses when it comes to your mistakes. Always Go Deeper - WHY Did You Miss a ScienceQuestion? Now, what are some common reasons that you missed a question? Don't just say, "I didn't get this question right." That's a cop out. Always take it one step further - what specifically did you miss, and what do you have to improve in the future? Here are some examples of common reasons you miss an ACT Science question, and how you take the analysis one step further: Content:I didn't have the science knowledge to understand what was being described in the passage. Example: "I forgot how forces work in physics." One step further:What specific content do I learn, and how will I learn this? How could I have done better, even without understanding the passage? Incorrect Approach:I understood the passage, but I didn't know how to solve this question. Example: "I didn't know how to extrapolate the line in the graph." One step further:How do I solve the question? Where have I seen other questions like this? How will I similarquestions in the future? Careless Error:I misread what the question was asking for or solved for the wrong thing. Example: "I confused Scientist 2's perspective with Scientist 1's." One step further:WHYdid I misread the question? What should I do in the future to avoid this? Get the idea? You're really digging into understanding why you're making every single mistake. Yes, this is hard, and it's draining, and it takes work. That's why most students who study ineffectively don't improve. But you're different. Just by reading this guide, you're already proving that you care more than other students. And if you apply these principles and analyze your mistakes, you'll improve more than other students too. Bonus: If all of this is making sense to you, you'd love our ACT prep program, PrepScholar. We designed our program around the concepts in this article, because they actually work.When you start with PrepScholar, you’ll take a diagnostic that will determine your weaknesses in over forty ACT skills, including the ACT Science skills above. PrepScholar then creates a study program specifically customized for you. To improve each skill, you’ll take focused lessons dedicated to each skill, with over 20 practice questions per skill. This will train you for your specific area weaknesses, so your time is always spent most effectively to raise your score. We also force you to focus on understanding your mistakes and learning from them. If you make the same mistake over and over again, we'll call you out on it. We also explain the ways every question tries to trick you so you won't get fooled again. There’s no other prep system out there that does it this way, which is why we get better score results than any other program on the market. Check it out today with a 5-day free trial: Strategy 5:If You Miss a Question, Re-Solve It When you're doing ACT Science practice questions, the first thing you probably do when reviewing is read the answer explanation and think about it a little. This is too easy. I consider thispassive learning - you're not actively engaging with the mistake you made. Instead, try something different - find the correct answer choice (A-D or F-J), but don't look at the explanation. Instead, try to resolve the question and get the correct answer. This will often be hard. You couldn't solve it the first time, so why could you solve it the second time around? But this time, with less time pressure, you might spot a new strategy, or something else will pop up. Something will just "click" for you. When this happens, what you learned will stick with you for 20 times longer than if you just read an answer explanation. I know this from personal experience. Because you've struggled with it and reached a breakthrough, you retain that information FARbetter than if you just passively absorbed the information. It's too easy to just read an answer explanation and have it go in one ear and out the other. You won't actually learn from your mistake, and you'll make that mistake over and over again. Treat each wrong question like a puzzle. Struggle with each wrong answer for up to ten minutes. Only then if you don't get it should you read the answer explanation. Then, log your mistakes in your notebook, like I recommended in Strategy 3. Strategy 6: If You Miss a Question, Generate New Questions Missed questions are such important learning opportunities that I have yet another strategy for them. After you fully review the question and understand exactly why you missed it, create two more questions yourself in the very same style. Then solve them. These questions are meant to be close replicas of the original question, so they test the same skill with the same passage but use slightly different scenarios. If it's a graph-related question, change the numbers so you're looking at a different part of the graph. If it's about conflicting viewpoints, changewhich scientist you're talking about. This is perfect for ACT Science because the questions are so stylistically formulaic, it's a lot easier to generate realistic questions. (Contrast this to ACT Reading, where it's tougher to come up with your own questions because of how passage-dependent the reading questions are.) What do you gain from doing this? First, you have a few more chances to practice the very question you just missed. This gives you instant reinforcement of your weakness. Think about it this way - if you're learning how to throw footballs with Patriots quarterback Tom Brady, and he gives you some advice, do you drop your football right at that moment and refuse to throw another one? No! You instantly use his advice to correct your next few throws! The same is true of the ACT, and especially ACT Science. If you instantly practice right after noticing a weakness, you'll get rid of your weakness far more quickly. The other thing you get out of doing this is you put yourself in the mind of the question maker - the ACT - which helps you understand how the test is constructed. Here are a few examples: 1) Change the question so instead you look at the LARGEST 18O value in lake clay. 2) Change the question so you look at the smallest 18O value inGLACIAL TILL. 1) Change the question so it's about 15 m below the surface. 2) Change the question so it's about 30 m below the surface. If youmake a mistake on a question and you review it well, you'll be able to answer your two variants 100%. When I was taking tests for high school and college, I used this strategy all the time. It gave me a lot more practice in areas I already knew I was weak in. Strategy 7:Get Used to Weird ACT Science Graphs On every single test, there will be a weird way to present data that you’ve never seen before. Like this graph of rock types at different temperatures and pressures: or this graph of sediment types and their characteristics: or this masterpiece on hearing: This last one is the craziestfigure I’ve ever seen on an ACT science test. Don’t be alarmed by these complex graphs. Remember what I said in the beginning? To make the test difficult, the ACT has to test SIMPLE concepts in COMPLICATED ways. In this case, that means using the same simple graph reading skills, you can understand EVERY graph the ACT throws at you. Don’t panic – just remember the same basic rules: What does each axis represent? What does the graph show? We're going to tackle, step by step, the last graph about hearing. So scroll up, skim the passage and graph (remember Strategy 2), and then work on this question: ... Ready? Did you give it a good try? It's really easy to get tripped up by a problem like this without knowing where to start. There are all these squiggly lines and even a curve that loops back on itself. But remember the fundamental principles that apply to every single graph. First, let's start by understanding what the graph is even showing. As the text says, "the figure below displays, for sounds in water and in air, the human thresholds of hearing and of pain." And in the paragraph above, it says that "the human threshold of hearing is the minimum intensity at each sound frequency required for a sound to be heard by humans." The critical first step for every graph is to look at the two axes - what's being shown here? On the x-axis is the intensity of the sound (in decibels, or db). As we move left, we lower the intensity. As we move right, we raise the intensity. On the y-axis is the frequency of the sound (in hertz, or Hz). As we move up, we increase the frequency. As we move down, we decrease the frequency. Both axes, intensity and frequency,relate to the definition of "human threshold of hearing" above. Next, on the graph we locate the curved line called "threshold of hearing." Again, this is a weird line, but remember the threshold is the MINIMUM intensity at a specific frequency to be heard by humans. Below that intensity, humans can't hear the sound. Above that intensity, we can. For example, let's pick a frequency: 1 x 102 (or 100) Hz. The threshold of hearing line is an intensity of roughly 40 db. Above 40db, humans can hear a sound at 100 Hz. Below 40db, humans can't hear a sound at 100 Hz. But the threshold of hearing intensity isn't the same at other frequencies! Let's pick103(or 1000) Hz. The line is much lower in intensity - around 0db. So at this frequency, the threshold of hearing is lower than at 100 Hz. As you follow the "threshold of hearing" line up and down, you'll see the intensity increase and decrease. At each frequency, there is a minimum intensity required to be heard by humans. Great - so now we understand the graph. We don't really care WHY this is actually true in real life. For this test, we just need to be able to read the graph. Now, the question - "which of the following is closest to the lowest frequency that can be heard by a human being?" We know that the "threshold of hearing" line defines what can be heard by humans. "Lowest frequency" suggests that we need to look downward on the y-axis. Here's the graph again: Look at the threshold of hearing line and follow it downward in frequency until....wait. It disappears. What does this mean? It must mean that humans can't hear the sound, no matter what the intensity is! Now, the question asks, at what frequency does this happen? To figure this out, you need to look at the y-axis. I draw a line from the point where the line disappears to the left: So we see the frequency is 2 x 101 Hz, or 20 Hz. That's answer G, which is correct. Whew - that was a handful, and one of the most difficult graphs I've seen on ACT Science. You're going to see crazy graphs like this, and possibly even more complicated graphs, on your ACT Science test. DON'T BE INTIMIDATED. Remember Strategy 2? You're not going to need most of the figure anyway! Break every figure down: What does each axis represent? What does the graph show? I guarantee that if you can answer these questions for each graph, you'll be able to answer every question relating to the graph. Strategy 8: Eliminate Careless Mistakes In your quest to get a perfect ACT Science score, you need absolute perfection. Probably the most frustrating type of mistake is a careless mistake. You understand the question, you know the answer, but you get excited and slip up. Oops - they were asking about Scientist 2, but you answered for Scientist 1 instead.There goes your 36. These types of errors are the most costly and frustrating. You've already put in a ton of work to master the underlying material, and here a question has tricked you into losing a point. ACT Science has a few especially tricky question types that are purpose built to trick you. If you understand this beforehand and know how to defeat them, you’ll be in a much more secure position. The first type is the Interpreting Experiments Question. The answer choices for these are almost always in this form: No, because A No, because B Yes, because A Yes, because B Here's a real example question: (The answer to this question is A.) The tricky part to these questions is that you can focus on getting one half right (especially the A/B part which has more words), and then miss the other half. For example, you might focus so much on verifying whether the solution was blue or yellow that you pick answer choice C, which has the same second half as A, but is Yes instead of No. To combat this, answer each half independently. â€Å"Do the results of Experiment 2 support this claim?† No – because the pH is higher at 1.8 mL.â€Å"If no, why not?† Because the solution was yellowat 0.2 and blue at 1.8mL.OK - then it's answer A. This way, you're less likely to make a careless mistake by misinterpreting the question. Make sure BOTH parts of the answer are correct! The other type of question that breeds careless mistakes is the Understanding Viewpoints questions. The passages will give you the perspectives of two or three scientists, and the questions will ask you about how each one behaves. Here's an example: So here you're tasked with finding the perspective of Student 2. But notice how they bury "Student 2" in the mess of the rest of the question. No doubt the ACT wants you to get distracted and forget which Student you should be thinking about. The correct answer is G. But if you had accidentally identified Student 1, you would have incorrectly answered J! One way to solve this is to circle the "Student 2" in the question text. Then, when you answer the question, think explicitly in your head, "Student 2 believes that..." Avoid considering the wrong perspective at all costs! Strategy 9: Drill Your Weaknesses Until They Disappear When your dentist inspects your mouth and finds a cavity, does she just ignore it and move on to looking at your other teeth? No! She cleans out the entire cavity with a drill so that the rotting doesn't continue. Then she fills in the hole with a filling. This completely solves the problem and preventsfuture cavities in the same location. You should treat every mistake you make like a cavity. Every question you miss on ACT Science points to an infection - a weakness that you have with ACT Science. To clear out the infection, you need to practice on the same type of question repeatedly until you COMPLETELYget rid of your weakness. Again, to get a perfect 36, you can't afford to make any mistakes. Fill in the potholes of your understanding. Remember the listingof every passage and question type in Strategy 3? When you grade your practice test, you MUST keep track of how many questions you are missing in which categories. Be scientific about this - you put in a lot of hard work in the practice test, now get the most out of it! Then, find a LOT of practice questions to keep drilling that specific weakness. Do you keep getting thrown offby complicated figures and charts? Find those charts and practice with them! Do you keep making careless mistakes on Viewpoints questions? Then keep practicing them until you don't anymore! In our ACT prep program PrepScholar, we do that work for you by splitting up our 1,500+ practice questions by skill and difficulty. If you're weak in graph reading, we're going to give you a ton of questions on graphs of all kinds. If you don't know how to interpret experiments, you'll get 20+ questions in a quiz dealing specifically with that skill. This repetitive practice fills up your content gap far better than any other method I know. Want to learn more about ACT Science? Check out our new ACT Science prep book. If you liked this lesson, you'll love our book. It includes everything you need to know to ace ACT Science, including deep analysis of the logic behind ACT Science questions, a full breakdown of the different passage and question types, and tons of expert test-taking and study tips. Download our full-length prep book now: Strategy 10: Be Fluent WithBasicScientific Concepts By and large, ACT Science is far more a reading and logic test than it is a science test. You can get a good score without understanding much science at all. But if you want a PERFECT score, you will have to understand the most important scientific concepts. The ACT DOESexpect you to know these by heart, even if the information isn't included in the passage. Here's a notable example: (there's more to this passage, but this is all that's relevant for the next two questions) This question asks about the function of organelles. This info isn't provided in the passage! You have to know that photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts. Another question: Once again, you have to know that C6H12O6 represents glucose in the photosynthesis equation. It's not in the passage - otherwise this would be trivial to answer. Luckily, we've gathered every scientific concept you have to know in our guide, "The Only Actual Science You Have to Know for ACT Science. We scoured dozens of official ACT tests to collect the scientific concepts you need that won't show up in the passage text. This includes concepts like: pH, acids and bases how charges attract and repel the scientific method natural selection and more. To get a perfect 36, you HAVE to know some science - here's what you need. Strategy : Pace Your TimeSection by Section, Question by Question In my experience, ACT Science has the second-most intense time pressure on the ACT (first is ACT Math). For ACT Science, you have to answer 40 questions across seven passages in 35 minutes. And if you want a perfect 36, you'll need to finish the section with time to spare so you can go back and check your work. This is why I recommend aiming to finish the entire ACT science section in 25 minutes. This gives you 10 minutes to spare to go back to questions you weren't sure about and make sure you're not making any careless mistakes. What this also means is that you should try to finish each passage and all associated questions within four minutes. Some passages are easier than others, but this should be your average. This is hard. Even though I'm pretty good at science, I still need 25 minutes or so to finish the section, because some passages really are pretty tricky. But this is what you should aim for. If you can accomplish this regularly, not only do you have extra time to perfect your answers, you've also reached a level of mastery that puts you on the path to a 36 score. It's important to pace yourself section by section and question by question because you do NOT want to obsess over a passage and waste time. The trouble with trying to get a perfect 36 is that you KNOW you have to miss zero questions, so you're more likely to fret about a single hard question. Before you know it, you've sunk three minutes on a single question. So if you spend over 30 seconds on a question, just skip it. You can always come back to it later, and right now it's most important to rack up as many points as possible. Quick Tip: Bubbling Answers Here's a bubbling tip that will save you five minutes, automatically. If you've read my other ACT 36 guides, then you'll already know this. When I first started test taking in high school, I did what many students do: after I finished one question, I went to the bubble sheet and filled it in. Then I solved the next question. Finish question 1, bubble in answer 1. Finish question 2, bubble in answer 2. And so forth. This actually wastes a lot of time. You're distracting yourself between two distinct tasks - solving questions, and bubbling in answers. This costs you time in both mental switching costs and in physically moving your hand and eyes to different areas of the test. Here's a better method: solve all your questions first in the book, then bubble all of them in at once. This has several huge advantages: you focus on each task one at a time, rather than switching between two different tasks. You also eliminate careless entry errors, like if you skip question 7 and bubble in question 8's answer into question 7's slot. By saving just five seconds per question, you get back 200 seconds on the 40 questions. This is huge. Note: Be careful that you don't run out of time before bubbling in answer choices! If the instructor calls time and you haven't bubbled anything, you're screwed. Strategy 12: DON'T Study With Actual Science Journals If you actually like science, you may be tempted to pick up an academic journal like Science or Natureto study for ACT Science. "If the testis about science research, then why wouldn't reading science research help?" Don't do it. ACT Science is superficially about science research, but it is VERY simplified for high schoolers. Remember that the ACT needs to be appropriate for high school students around the country, not for leadingscientists with PhDs. The time you spend trying to understand what in the world is going on in a study like thisis far better spent actually doing ACT Science questions. Furthermore, ACT Science asks questions in a very specific way about their passages. You don't do this when you read research journals, so you don't get to practice the actual skills you need to perfect. Now, if you get a kick out of science research, then by all means do read science journals - for fun. Since I did a lot of science research in high school, I tried to read some academic literature too. Just don't expect it to improve your ACT Science score. Strategy13: Keep a Calm Mind During the Test, No Matter What Now you know what it takes to achieve perfection on ACT Science. You know that to get a 36, you have to aim for ZERO missed questions. Otherwise, you might get a 35. This makes a lot of high-achieving students nervousduring the test. "I don't get this passage...I can't solve this question...my 36 is gone...I'm getting more nervous and I have to skip the next question too...oh dear...I don't think I know how to read anymore..." You can see how quickly you can fall into a vicious cycle because you have really high goals. Before you know it, your anxiety leads to a worse score than you would have ever expected. You need to learn to be mentally strong, like an athlete on game day. You have to roll with the punches. Yes, you might have to skip a question on the first pass through. Maybe even two in a row. But you've practiced hard up to this point. You know this stuff, and you'll come back to those questions and get it later (especially if you've been using the time-saving strategies above). You need to keep up a positive mindset during the test, or you'll crumble. And in the worst case, maybe you won't get a 36. But if you've consistently been getting 36's on the practice tests, you likely won't go much lower than 34 - and that's still an awesome score, even for the best colleges in the United States. In Overview Those are the main strategies I have for you to improve your ACT Sciencescore to a 36. If you're scoring above a 26 right now, with hard work and smart studying, you can raise it to a perfect ACT Sciencescore. Notice how much I talked about reviewing your mistakes, understanding your weaknesses, and drilling them with good practice. I don't tell you that there's a magic solution to getting a 36 that works for everyone. That's because one-size-fits-all, guaranteed strategies don't really exist. (And anyone who tells you this is deceiving you.) Every student is different. Instead, you need to understand where you're falling short, and drill those weaknesses continuously. You also need to be thoughtful about your mistakes and leave no mistake ignored. If you want to go back and review any of the strategies above, here's a list of all the strategies: Strategy 1: Understand Your High Level Weakness: Content or Time Management Strategy 2: Don't Waste Time In the Passage and Figures Strategy 3: Understand EVERY Type of ACT Science Passage and Question Strategy 4: Do a Ton of Practice, and Understand Every Single Mistake Strategy 5: If You Miss a Question, Re-Solve It Strategy 6: If You Miss a Question, Generate New Questions Strategy 7: Get Used to Weird ACT Science Graphs Strategy 8: Eliminate Careless Mistakes Strategy 9: Drill Your Weaknesses Until They Disappear Strategy 10: Be Fluent with Basic Scientific Concepts Strategy : Pace Your Time Section by Section, Question by Question Strategy 12: Don't Study with Actual Science Journals Strategy 13: Keep a Calm Mind During the Test, No Matter What Keep reading for more resources on how to boost your ACT score. What's Next? We have a lot more useful guides to raise your ACT score. Read our complete guide to a perfect 36, written by me, a perfect scorer. Also check out our 36 Math, 36 Reading, and 36 English guides. Learn how to write a perfect-scoring 12 ACT essay, step by step. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

WHO CAN HELP THE CEO Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

WHO CAN HELP THE CEO - Case Study Example Amory suggested that Eliot be set up with an executive coach. Eliot did not agree with the advice and regretted having called Amory. When Eliot became CEO of TrakVue he made some optimistic sales projections which came back to bite him. The board saw Eliot as being behind in his results due to the foolish projections he made two years earlier. Eliot also consulted his problems at the company with another friend, Bob Gellingham, who worked in public relations. He suggested that Eliot should land one or two big accounts to change attention away from the problems. The executive coach that Amory set up for him told Eliot he was in denial about the business problems. Another coach told him to seek advice. Eliot thought that it was the coachs job to give that advice. The coach also told him that he rarely seeks input from anyone: subordinates, peers outside the company, or customers. Eliot resented the advice because he sought the coach was uninformed about the dynamics of his business. He was worried that the board might fire him in their next meeting since he had lost two sales VP during his tenure as CEO. The article ended by offering three different views from commentators. Jerry Rao who was a CEO himself suggested that keeping the problems within is not the right rout. When he faced similar problems to Eliot he looked for the advice from the board of directors. He also said that colleagues may have agendas that lead to detrimental advice, thus it was a smart idea to use coaches or consultants. He said that assistants often can provide good insight. The second commentator, Susan Ashford, questioned Eliots leadership and that he did not admit his weaknesses. She said that Eliot avoided seeking advice from his colleagues. The last commentator, Stephen Socolof, said Eliot has to reassure the board about his capacity to run the company. He said Eliot should ask for help from mentors and other experienced people. The article showed the